Decarbonisation pathways for local authorities, citizen and businesses


Over the course of the project, LOCALISED publishes academic outputs as research deliverables, scientific articles or databases as well as dissemination resources such as videos, webinars and other information material about the project. In addition we make available interesting information from some external sources which we identified as interesting, without pretending to be exhaustive.

With this we intend to flank transformative challenges for cities and regions in regard to decarbonisation.

Data and Information

Documentation of decarbonisation scenarios for usage in the project (Deliverable 2.1).

This report details how the EUCalc model is used to reproduce the demand, energy supply and GHG emissions disclaimed in national decarbonization pathways. A total of three national decarbonization plans are reproduced for the countries of Portugal, France and Germany as an example. Released in June 2022. Link >>

Mitigation and Adaptation Indicators (Deliverable 2.6).

This report presents a first version of indicators which are appropriate and practicable to downscale national decarbonisation trajectories to local level in order to speed up the uptake of mitigation and adaptation actions. Released in September 2022. Link >>

LOCALISED Data Management Plan – first version (Deliverable 1.1).

This report asseses the types and nature of data to be collected and/or generated during the LOCALISED project, as well as details of strategies to make data compliant with FAIR principles. It also introduces suggestions of appropriate licensing schemes for data and software, separately, together with planned repositories to safeguard data legacy. Released in February 2022. Link >>

Stakeholder engagement, communication and dissemination

LOCALISED stakeholder interaction methodology and schedule (Deliverable 8.1).

This report presents the methodology and time plan for the stakeholder mapping, the main stakeolder groups and the planned interaction with them for the tools‘ co-design. Released in June 2022. Link >>

LOCALISED dissemination and communication strategy (Deliverable 9.1).

This document is intended to be the strategic and operative guide for all LOCALISED partners in regard to the communication and dissemination of project activities, results and outputs. Its aim is to provide the project team with targeted information in order to coordinate, align and efficiently implement outreach activities. Released in March 2022. Link >>

Gender, diversity, quality and impact

Quality review process and impact assessment plan (Deliverable 1.4).

The document has two parts. It pesentes: (1) the quality review process for the LOCALISED outputs; and (2), the methodology to assess the impacts of LOCALISED results and outputs. Released in September 2022. Link >>

Guidelines on gender and diversity monitoring and within multidisciplinary teams (Deliverable 1.5).

The report is intended to be a guiding blueprint for the LOCALISED project (and beyond) for the implementation and monitoring of gender mainstreaming, inclusivety, and diversity within a research project. It aims to close the gap between the gender mainstreaming and diversity policies and their implementation, execution, and assessment. Released in April 2022. Link >>

External resources

Energy and emission downscaling

Costa, L., Moreau, V., Thurm, B., Yu, W., Clora, F., Baudry, G., Warmuth, H., Hezel, B., Seydewitz, T., Ranković, A., Kelly, G., Kropp, J. P. (2021). The decarbonisation of Europe powered by lifestyle changes. Environmental Research Letters, 16(4), 044057. Link >>

Clora, F., Yu, W., Baudry, G., & Costa, L. (2021). Impacts of supply-side climate change mitigation practices and trade policy regimes under dietary transition: the case of European agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 16(12), 124048. Link >>

Development and modelling of different decarbonization scenarios of the European energy system until 2050 as a contribution to achieving the ambitious 1.5 ◦C climate target – establishment of open source/data modelling in the European H2020 project openENTRANCE. Link >>

Moran, D., Pichler, P. P., Zheng, H., Muri, H., Klenner, J., Kramel, D., … & Gurney, K. R. (2022). Estimating CO 2 emissions for 108 000 European cities. Earth System Science Data, 14(2), 845-864. Link >>

Pan-European Thermal Atlas 4.3. An interactive tool that allows for the download of a variety of data useful for heat planning.
 Link >>.

Verstraete, J. (2016). The spatial disaggregation problem: simulating reasoning using a fuzzy inference system. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 25(3), 627-641. Link >>

Monteiro, J., Martins, B., & Pires, J. M. (2018). A hybrid approach for the spatial disaggregation of socio-economic indicators. International Journal of Data Science and Analytics, 5(2), 189-211. Link >>


  • Large solar plants: Kruitwagen, L; Story, K; Friedrich, J; Byers, L; Skillman, S; Hepburn, C. A global inventory of solar photovoltaic generating units. Link >>
  • Solar PV and wind turbine installations: Dunnett, Sebastian (2020): Harmonised global datasets of wind and solar farm locations and power. figshare. Dataset.  Link >>
  • Electricity generation potentials and demand from the eXtremOS project. Link >>
  • Human presence on the planet. Global Human Settlement Layer. Link >>
  • European regional statistics. Link >>
  • Climate policies and policy barriers. Link >>
  • Land use and land cover. Copernicus CORINE Land Cover. Link >>
  • European Mitigation Measures & Policies. EEA database on greenhouse gas policies and measures in Europe. Link >>
  • Sectoral Mitigation Measures & Policies. European Energy Sufficiency Policy Database. Link >>

Regional Business Vulnerability to Decarbonisation

Wang, S., & Chen, B. (2018). Three-Tier carbon accounting model for cities. Applied Energy, 229, 163-175. Link >>

Fiedler, T., Pitman, A. J., Mackenzie, K., Wood, N., Jakob, C., & Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S. E. (2021). Business risk and the emergence of climate analytics. Nature Climate Change, 11(2), 87-94. Link >>

Pankratz, N., & Schiller, C. (2021, June). Climate change and adaptation in global supply-chain networks. In Proceedings of Paris December 2019 Finance Meeting EUROFIDAI-ESSEC, European Corporate Governance Institute–Finance Working Paper (No. 775). Link >>

Lo, A. Y., Liu, S., Chow, A. S., Pei, Q., Cheung, L. T., & Fok, L. (2021). Business vulnerability assessment: a firm-level analysis of micro-and small businesses in China. Natural Hazards, 108(1), 867-890. Link >>

Synergies between mitigation and adaptation

Selection tool and database about climate change-related adaptation strategies at local level developed by the RESCCUE project. Link >>

openTEPES model (Open Generation and Transmission Operation and Expansion Planning Model). A model that analyses the impact of the implementation of specific energy policies on the development of the power transmission network. Link >>

Climate-ADAPT. Database of European Adaptation & Mitigation Measures, Case Studies, and Indicators. Link >>

Urban Adaptation e-Guide of the RESIN project. Support platform for knowledge, support and tools to develop an urban climate adaptation plan. Link >>

Adaptation Options Library of the RESIN project. Data tool allowing spatial and sectoral filtering of adaptation measures developed as a part of the RESIN project. Presents synergies and tradeoffs when available. Link >>

Duguma, L. A., Minang, P. A., & van Noordwijk, M. (2014). Climate change mitigation and adaptation in the land use sector: from complementarity to synergy. Environmental management, 54(3), 420-432. Link >>

Peñasco, C., Anadón, L. D., & Verdolini, E. (2021). Systematic review of the outcomes and trade-offs of ten types of decarbonization policy instruments. Nature Climate Change, 11(3), 257-265. Link >>

Making sustainable decarbonization plans of cities operational management tools

Fekete, H., Kuramochi, T., Roelfsema, M., den Elzen, M., Forsell, N., Höhne, N., … & Gusti, M. (2021). A review of successful climate change mitigation policies in major emitting economies and the potential of global replication. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 137, 110602. Link >>


EUCalc model – The EUCalc models energy, resources, production and food systems at the EU level + UK and Switzerland (EU27+2) under pre-defined (but adjustable) levels of ambitions in regard to technological deployment and consumption behaviour. The modelling approach was inspired by the family of so called 2050 Calculators which were spearheaded by the call for more transparent approaches to address the challenge of reducing carbon emissions. You find the EUCalc model and source code at this Link >>

Python Libraries:

  • The open-source Python package pyam provides a suite of tools and functions for analysing and visualising input data (i.e., assumptions/parametrization) and results (model output) of integrated-assessment models, macro-energy scenarios, energy systems analysis, and sectoral studies. Link >>
  • PyPSA-Eur-Sec builds on the electricity generation and transmission model PyPSA-Eur to add demand and supply for the following sectors: transport, space and water heating, biomass, industry and industrial feedstocks, agriculture, forestry and fishing. This completes the energy system and includes all greenhouse gas emitters except waste management and land use. Link >>
  • DEAP is an evolutionary algorithm framework in python allowing rapid scaling of evolutionary algorithm analyses and allowing for parallelisation and multi-objective analysis types. Link >>

Gams ModelGENeSYS-MOD v3.0 [Global Energy System Model] with additional equations for ramping, ramping costs, and minimal runtime requirements. Test dataset for Middle-earth included. GENeSYS-MOD is a linear program, minimizing total system costs. Energy demands are exogenously predefined and the model needs to provide the necessary capacities to meet them. To achieve a cost-optimal energy mix, the model considers a plethora of different technology options, including generation, sector coupling, and storages. Link >>

Jacobson, M. Z., von Krauland, A. K., Coughlin, S. J., Palmer, F. C., & Smith, M. M. (2022). Zero air pollution and zero carbon from all energy at low cost and without blackouts in variable weather throughout the US with 100% wind-water-solar and storage. Renewable Energy, 184, 430-442. Link >>

Nagy, Z., Felkner, J., Beck, A. L., Reeves, D. C., Richter, S., Shastry, V., … & Rai, V. (2022). IMPACT: Integrated Multi-Domain Emission Pathways For Cities Under Land-Use Policy, Technology Adoption, Climate Change And Grid Decarbonization. arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.07458. Link >>

Auer, H., Crespo del Granado, P., Oei, P. Y., Hainsch, K., Löffler, K., Burandt, T., … & Grabaak, I. (2020). Development and modelling of different decarbonization scenarios of the European energy system until 2050 as a contribution to achieving the ambitious 1.5∘ C climate target – establishment of open source/data modelling in the European H2020 project openENTRANCE. e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, 137(7), 346-358. Link >>

Victoria, M., Zhu, K., Brown, T., Andresen, G. B., & Greiner, M. (2020). Early decarbonisation of the European energy system pays off. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-9. Link >>

Muñoz, D. S., & García, J. L. D. (2021). GIS-based tool development for flooding impact assessment on electrical sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 320, 128793. Link >>

Sánchez-Muñoz, D., Domínguez-García, J. L., Martínez-Gomariz, E., Russo, B., Stevens, J., & Pardo, M. (2020). Electrical grid risk assessment against flooding in Barcelona and Bristol cities. Sustainability, 12(4), 1527. Link >>

RESCCUE project

  • Russo, B., Velasco, M., Locatelli, L., Sunyer, D., Yubero, D., Monjo, R., … & Gómez, A. G. (2020). Assessment of urban flood resilience in Barcelona for current and future Scenarios. The RESCCUE project. Sustainability, 12(14), 5638. Link >>
  • Climate data for Barcelona, Bristol and Lisbon. RESCCUE project. Link >>
  • RESCCUE Toolkit. Link >>
  • RESCCUE based expert study for Barcelona at the Clarity CSIS platform. Link >>

ENERMAPS project

  • ENERMAPS gateway on Energy Reserach Open Data Tool. Link >>
  • ENERMAPS visualisation tool. Link >>